Stukenberg Geology Museum of Kazan State University
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Minerals of this class can be defined as natural salts of carbonic acid with Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr, Pb, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and U basic ions, alkali metals and rare-earth metals. Carbonates also consist of additional acid ions (OH), F and Cl. The class includes about 120 minerals.

Carbonates can be simple and complex as well as hydrous and anhydrous. The majority of minerals from this class are characterized by glassy luster and low hardness. Almost all the carbonates more or less interact with hydro-chloric acid exhaling carbon dioxide. Many carbonates are used as materials for construction and jewelry, as fluxes in chemical industry and bonded refractory in metallurgy. Besides, these minerals are ores for iron, aluminium, polymetalls and rare earths, and serve as valuable optical raw material.

Specificity of the KSU Geology Museum exposition is that Permian sediments which are found everywhere in Tatarstan are mainly represented by carbonates, namely limestones and dolomites. Since the first days of Kazan University up to now the best representatives of Kazan Geology School studied Permian sediments, chose samples and gave them to the Geology Museum. As a result of this long-term work there are a lot of theme collections of the Volga Region carbonate minerals in the Mineralogy Section and in the museum stores.

Alongside samples from our territory there are many carbonates from other regions: druses of calcite crystals from Cumberland deposits (Great Britain) and Dalnegorsk city (Primorski territory), growths of big azurite crystals from Lion deposit (France), hetero-granular siderite aggregates from Baikal mines and magnesite from Satkinskoye Deposit in the South Urals.

The Mineralogy Section of the KSU Geology Museum is especially proud of malachite samples. Thanks to Professor A.A.Stukenberg and his expeditions to the South Urals there are hundreds of wonderful malachite lumps from Gumeshevskoye and Mednorudyanskoye deposits in Kazan University. Given samples are characterized both by banded and kidney-shaped and velveteen structure of the mineral. Taking into consideration big size of samples (some lumps are 300 x 300 x 300 mm) and the fact that nowadays the above-mentioned deposits are almost completely exhausted, one can say without any doubt that the collection of the Urals malachite is a rarity.

According to historical value for the Urals and its popularity malachite is certainly the main industrial stone. It was the remarkable gem that gave idea for "The Malachite Box", "The Copper Hill Hostess" and other works of the Urals epic literature. Big malachite deposits opened in Kazakhstan and Africa later on are characterized by mineral of other quality. They say there is no analogue to the Urals malachite nowadays.

One should mention that not long ago Russian scientists developed technologies for obtaining synthetic malachite. At present synthetic malachite produced by industrial companies is widely used in jeweler's work.

Calcite. Dalnegorskoye Deposit. Primorski Territory
Dalnegorskoye Deposit.
Primorski Territory

Azurite. Arizona, USA
Arizona, USA

Calcite. Cumberland, England
Cumberland, England

Green Copper. Gumeshevskoye Deposit, the Urals
Green Copper.
Gumeshevskoye Deposit,
the Urals

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