Stukenberg Geology Museum of Kazan State University
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Halogenides

The number of halogenides comes to 200 minerals approximately. They include compounds of the halogens (F, Cl, Br, I) mainly with alkali and alkaline-earth metals (Na, K, Mg, Ca). The majority of minerals of this class are dielectrics characterized by glass glassy luster, low density and hardness. Many of them are ready soluble in water.


According to haloid salt-forming acids traditionally this class is subdivided into fluorides, chlorides, bromides and iodides. Halogenides are used in chemical, food and optical industry, and as fertilizers in agriculture. Some of them are ores of rare chemical elements.


A real masterpiece of the KSU Museum is a big druse (400 x 300 mm) of transparent purple fluorite crystals from Cumberland deposit (Great Britain), acquired by the University in the end of the XIX century. Taking into consideration that at present this deposit has been almost completely worked out, this sample is of great historical interest.


Saline deposits of the Caspian basin are represented by the exhibited big cubic halite crystals (rock salt), multi-colored samples of bitter-salty sylvite and dry carnallite aggregates.

 
Fluorite. Cumberland, England
Fluorite.
Cumberland. England



Sylvite. Verkhnekamskoye Deposit
Sylvite.
Verkhnekamskoye Deposit
 
 


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