Stukenberg Geology Museum of Kazan State University
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Collection of Gem-Stones and Articles Made of Gems

The old Russian word "samotsvet" (gem-stone) means what is used in jewelry's art. This category of stones in Mineralogy is defined as industrial stones. At present the classification of industrial stones made by Ye.Ya.Kiyevlenko, which considers the price of one or another gem on the world market, is used in Russia. According to this classification all raw materials used in jewelry's art are divided into three groups.

The first group: jewelry or precious stones.
1 order: diamond, emerald, sapphire, ruby, alexandrite.
2 order: precious jadeite, precious opal, oriental topaz, oriental emerald and violet corundum.
3 order: demantoid garnet, spinel, aquamarine, topaz.
4 order: tourmaline, zircon, beryl, turquoise, chrisolite, amethyst, chrysoprase, garnets.

The second group: industrial or semi-precious stones.
1 order: quartz, jadeite, nephrite, lazurite, malachite, charoite.
2 order: chalcedony, agate, rhodonite, amazonite, heliotrope, obsidian.

The third group: industrial and facing stone.
Jasper, onyx marble, flint, marble, quartzite, selenite.

The Gem Collection of the Mineralogy Section of the KSU Geology Museum characterizes all groups of industrial raw materials. There are diamonds from kimberlites of Yakut diamond-forming province, emeralds from glimmerites of Emerald mines in the Urals, rubies and sapphires as pebble stones from Indochina placers, alexandrites from the Urals at the museum disposal. As for less expensive gems the museum exhibits precious opals from Australia, beryls from Adun-Cholon, topazes from Volyn (Ukraine), amethysts from the Urals, Brazil, Hungary, spinel from Kukhi-Lal deposit in the Pamirs, zircons from Ilmen mountains and garnets from different regions.

Group of jewelry-industrial stones is represented by big quartz druses , jadeite of the Polar-Urals and Kasakhstandeposits, lazurite from Slyudyanka and the Pamirs, malachite of Mednorudyanskoye and Gumeshevskoye deposits, and charoite from the Murun land mass. The group also includes a wonderful collection of agates from different deposits all over the world.

Industrial and facing stones are represented in the Mineralogy Section by numerous samples of multi-colored jaspers from the Urals and Altai, banded onyxes marble and patterned flints from the Volga Region, quartzites and avanturines form KMA (Kursk Magnetic Anomaly) and Taganai, multi-colored marbles from the Urals and Siberia.

The Mineralogy Section demonstrates a copy of the biggest diamond in the world "Culinan" as well as the collection of glass imitations of the biggest diamonds in the world, such as "Shakh", "Orlov" and others. A separate stall of the exhibition is devoted to the products made of gem raw materials, which were bought by the museum at precious stones' exhibitions year after year or were presented to the museum by graduates and guests of the KSU Geology Museum. There are boxes, vases, bowls made of malachite, agate, onyx marble and other colorful stones, carved articles made of onyx, agate, nephrite, jasper, as well as panels made of minerals from the North-Eastern Region of the Russian federation and many others. A big "hill" formed by more than one hundred gem stones from the Urals evokes great admiration of the visitors.

Since ancient times people considered gems as magic and dynamic substances, which can protect from evil, gain somebody's favor, serve as amulets and talismans. Thus, gem-stones are connected with signs of Zodiac. Here you can see one of the tables where gems correspond to Zodiac constellations and planets.
Aries (Mars) - agate, amethyst, lazurite, mountain crystal, jasper.
Taurus (Venus) - agate, turquoise, carnelian, rose quartz.
Gemini (Mercury) - citrine, tiger's eye, malachite, chalcedony.
Cancer (Moon) - aventurine, chrysoprase, nephrite, chalcedony.
Leo(Sun) - mountain crystal, citrine, nephrite, jasper.
Virgin (Mercury) - agate, citrine, hematite, rodonite.
Libra (Venus) - rauchtopaz, amazonite, citrine, carnelian.
Scorpio (Mars) - carneol, sard, turquoise, malachite.
Sagittarius (Jupiter) - chalcedony, aventurine, amazonite, chrysoprase.
Capricorn (Saturn) - onyx, cat's eye, obsidian, mountain crystal.
Aquarius (Saturn) - amethyst, turquoise, onyx, jasper.
Fishes (Jupiter) - amethyst, hematite, lasurite, carnelian.

In general one can understand our ancestors. Without knowledge and right remedies for illnesses they had to hope for a lucky chance, talisman and protecting amulets. Precious stones were considered to be magic because they were inaccessible for poor people. However, even Biruni was definitely opposed to any connections between heavenly bodies and stones, ironically speaking about belief in astral or curative properties of minerals. Contemporary litho-therapeutists, who support treatment of diseases by minerals and rocks, should remember it.

Ruby in nature. Ruby Ravine, the Polar Urals
Ruby in nature.
Ruby Ravine, the Polar Urals

Emerald. Emerald Mines, the Urals
Emerald. Emerald Mines,
the Urals

Opal. Honduras
Opal. Honduras

Agate. Aravia
Agate. Aravia

Diamond Mines
Diamond Mines

Vase made of malachite
Vase made of malachite

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