Stukenberg Geology Museum of Kazan State University
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Phosphates, arsenates, vanadates and borates

This section unites four classes of natural compounds, which represent salts of phosphoric and arsenic, vanadium and different boric acids. Total number of minerals belonging to these classes, found on earth, is more than 400.

Phosphates which are used in agriculture as valuable phosphoric fertilizers being sometimes a source of radioactive materials are of greatest practical importance. Borates are raw materials for boron production and, more over, are used in glass industry, medicine, metallurgy and other spheres.

The first class of minerals is represented by a nice set of apatite crystals from the famous Slyudyanka Deposit in Baikal Region. The exhibited apatite crystals are 300 mm in length.

Druses of small pyromorphite crystals from Berezovskoye Deposit in the Urals and radiate-fibrous vivianite aggregates from Kerchenskoye Deposit are of great visual attraction.

Inderskoye Deposit in the North-West of Kazakhstan is the biggest deposit of boric minerals on the whole territory of the former USSR.

Owing to F.A.Zakirova's investigations of this deposit, a graduate of the KSU Geology Department, there is a rich collection of rare boric minerals in the museum such as boracite, injoite, hydroboracite, ulexite, colemanite, inderborite and others.

One of the oldest and most popular gem-stones, turquoise (kallait), belongs to the class of phosphates. There are small deposits of this rare mineral in all inhabited continents of the planet, but Iranian turquoise is considered to be the best.

At present almost all the deposits of this precious stone have been exhausted. Owing to intellectual effort of Russian scientists a technology of obtaining synthetic turquoise has been developed recently. The turquoise obtained synthetically is better than natural stone by a number of characteristics and consolidated its position in the world market under the name "biryuzite".

Hydroboracite with herheite. Inder, Kazakhstan
Hydroboracite with herheite.
Inder, Kazakhstan

Apatite. Slyudyanka, Baikal Region
Slyudyanka, Baikal Region

Turquoise. Kyrgyzstan

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