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   · Prof. Yu. Nefed'ev
 




Director of the Observatory
Professor Yuri A. Nefed'ev

  Address: EAO, St. Observatory,
  422526 Zelenodolsky region,
  Tatarstan, Russia
  E-mail: star1955@mail.ru

Engelhard Astronomical Observatory (EAO)

Engelhard Astronomical Observatory is based in 1901 and located in 24 kilometers from the city of Kazan (Longitude =3h 15m 15.74 s, Latitude = 55050 ' 20 " 6, H = 94 m).

Direction of researches in the Engelhard Astronomical Observatory - Research of coordinately-time problems of astronomy and a geodesy, definition of exact positions of stars and construction of catalogues of star positions, supervision and specification of figures and orbits of bodies of Solar system, definition of galactic parameters, astronomical instrument making, a history of astronomy.

The history of creation of Engelhard Astronomical Observatory begins with transfer to gift to the Kazan University in 1897 known astronomer Vasily Pavlovich Engelhard of the unique astronomical equipment of the private observatory in Dresden. Having stopped astronomical activity owing to advanced years and illnesses Engelhard has decided to offer all tools and library of the Astronomical observatory to the Kazan university. Vasily Pavlovich has put the first condition of the donation that his tools have been established as soon as possible and on them supervision are started. In 1898 the decree of Emperor had been allocated means and the ground for construction of the Astronomical observatory is allocated.

The main tool of the Engelhard Astronomical Observatory was constructed by English master Grubbom in 1875 the 12-inch refractor. It has diameter of an objective of 31 sm. and length about 4 meters the Tower in which it is, has height of 6.5 m, its internal diameter about 6 m. The tower is surrounded with a small balcony with a graceful pig-iron lattice. The column for a refractor is laid out separately from walls of a tower and leaves under the ground on 3 m. The dome iron, tamped inside a tree, moves on rollers which go on two pairs a rail. Diameter of a dome of 6.6 m. Has one slot for supervision in width in one meter, closed by two hatches.

Meridian circle of Engelhard Observatory has been made in 1845 in Hamburg by the known designer of astronomical tools - Repsold. Columns of the tool tower above a floor of a hall on 2 m and are isolated from other part of the base and a floor by glycerin. Distance between them of 1.1 m. For protection against heating the meridian circle is covered with a wooden sliding small house. At a meridian circle there are two worlds removed from the center of mercury horizon on 130 m everyone. Southern to the world, owing to downturn of district, it was necessary to lift in the way of fillings a special barrow on 5.5 meters in height. The pavilion the worlds is not only astronomical point, but also a tomb - a unique architectural construction. It is constructed as a small chapel in the Byzantian style, decorated on perimeter by stars and signs on the zodiac. In the basis of it there is a crypt for the two person intending for V.P. Engelhard and D.I.Dubjago. But is based here only Dubiago, dyed in 1918. V.P.Engelgardt's died in Dresden in 1915 body, owing to begun 1-st. world war with Germany and to the followed revolution to transfer in the Observatory it was not possible. Astronomers of Engelhard Observatory do not lose hope to execute last will of the founder and to bury his ashes under southern chrism - a tomb, next to his friend. In the north of territory on a direction of a meridian there is an iron pavilion northern the worlds.

The unique tool of the Engelhard Astronomical Observatory is unique in the world now a working telescope heliometer. It's one of the first heliometer, left workshops Repsolda. It has been made in 1874 and established in Engelhard Observatory in 1908 in specially for him the constructed round pavilion in diameter of 3.6 m.

Besides on an observant platform of the Engelhard Astronomical Observatory locates the advanced telescopes got EAO at various times: Zenith telescope, telescope Geid, the Meniscal telescope of system Maksutova, AFR, telescope AZT-14 modified and completed CCD - a matrix, etc.

In the Engelhard Astronomical Observatory is present the big special library numbering about 100000 units of storage. In a basis of it libraries V.P have lain. Engelhard, A.M.Kowalski, D.I.Dubjago, M.A.Grachyov in which there are the rare copies of books with autographs of the well-known astronomers.

The scientific equipment of an observatory allowed and allows it carry out astronomical researches at the advanced level, bringing the contribution to a world astronomical science. On a meridian circle the fundamental system of coordinates has been created, catalogues of weak stars (CSZ), AGC, FCSZ, etc. are received. On heliometer the longest lines of supervision in Russia are received, unique supervision of the Moon with stars are carried out, catalogues of lunar craters are received. On a refractor were carried out definitions of coordinates of bodies of solar system. In astrophysical department EAO the structure of the interstellar environment and structure of the Galaxy is studied. Catalogues of spectral sizes and parameters of color more than 30000 stars are received. In 1932 an observatory has selected the center on studying variable stars. Works of the international value are carried out in a meteoric department of an observatory. The glass library of an observatory totals about 50000 photographic plates.


Main Office building of EAO


Building of library EAO (A photo of 2007).


The main building of the EAO (a photo of 2007).


Pavilion of Heliometer (A photo of 2007).

All site of Engelhard Observatory represents park with rare trees - centenary unique cedars and oaks, camomile glades and buildings organically entered in its landscape and pavilions. In northwest of territory there is the picturesque lake "Glasses" were system of two lakes (a natural reservoir and artificial), connected among themselves the small channel. Thousand pupils of schools, students and tourists every year visit the Engelhard Astronomical Observatory with the purpose of acquaintance to the Astronomical Heritage of an observatory in which cultural, scientific and educational components are closely bound.

In the Engelhard Astronomical Observatory is created the Museum of a history of astronomy which contains set of unique exhibits of the historical, scientific and technical and art contents. In the Engelhard Astronomical Observatory on a regular basis carries out {a regular basis spends} scientific conferences of world and All-Russia value. A life of the Engelhard Astronomical Observatory is consecrated with journalists of radio and TV who find in an observatory interesting themes for transfers and the best scenery for the historical theatrical statements.

Engelhard Astronomical Observatory is the only thing scientifically - educational and cultural - the cognitive astronomical center, located on territory from Moscow up to the most east border of Russia.

Services of Kazan astronomers

Names of the lunar craters:

T.A. Banahevich (master);
I.V. Belkovich (professor);
M.A.Grachev (professor);
D.I. Dubjago (professor);
V.P. Engelhardt (professor);
M.A. Kovalsky (professor);
A.V. Krasnov (professor);
I.A. Littrov (professor);
N.I. Lobachevsky (professor);
A.A. Yakovkin (professor);
A.A. Nefed'ev (professor)

Names of the comet:

A.D.Dubjago (professor);

Names of the asteroids:

E.O. Dibay (student):
A.D. Dubiago (professor):
Emeljanenko (student):
N.I. Lobachevsky (professor);
D.Y. Martinov (professor).

Directors of EAO:

D.I. Dubjago (since 1901 until 1918)
M.A.Grachev (since 1918 until 1925)
A.A. Yakovkin (since 1925 until 1931)
D.Y. Martunov (since 1931 until 1956)
A.D. Dubjago (since 1956 until 1958)
A.A.Nefed'ev (since 1958 until 1976)
O.I. Belkovich (since 1976 until 1991)
N.G. Rizvanov (since 02.1991 until 11.1991)
N.A. Sakhibullin (since 1991 until 2008)
Yu.A. Nefed'ev (since 2008)

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